Cause of Chlamydia infection is Chlamydia trachomatis. It is believed that 1 of 10 sexually active people are infected with this disease

Chlamydia transmission

Chlamydia is transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, including sexual intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Transmission of chlamydia bacteria can also occur through vaginal delivery with the infected infant. When left untreated, chlamydia can permanently damage the reproductive organs and cause infertility in women and men. Also, Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common cause of pneumonia in infants.

Any sexually active person can get chlamydia. The higher number of sexual partners, the greater the risk of infection. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea have similar symptoms and can have similar complications if left untreated, and chlamydia are sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as gonorrhea, and vice versa. This is bad, because the treatment of these two sexually transmitted diseases is different.

Chlamydia can infect a woman's cervix and urinary tract, and can also cause inflammation of the pelvis when the channel reaches the uterus (uterine tube). Because the cervix of teenage girls and young women is not fully mature, they are at particular risk for infection if sexually active.

On the other hand, chlamydia in men may infect the urinary tract and the epididymis (part of the male genital tract that conducts sperm from the testicles to vas deferens) may be a result of epididymitis (inflammation of vas deferens, ie. Sperm duct), swelling or inflammation of the testicles and pain in the testicles.

Anyone who is sexually active should be tested at least once a year, since the symptoms of chlamydia may also be seamless.

Incubation of chlamydia infection

The incubation period for Chlamydia is from 1 to 3 weeks.

Symptoms of chlamydia infection

So you may ask yourself what are the symptoms of chlamydia. If you practice unprotected sex condom, you're not in a strictly monogamous relationship, you may already have chlamydia and you should check the most common symptoms. Symptoms may be so slight, almost imperceptible, but it should show up after one to three weeks after intercourse with an infected person.

Symptoms of chlamydia infection in women

No symptoms in 70-80% of cases! (One study found that even 3% of respondents who were in a group of young adults between 18 and 35 years have untreated chlamydia.) If there are symptoms, they are:

  • Burning sensation when urinating, ie. when urinating.
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Pain in lower back.
  • Unusual pain during intercourse.
  • Vaginal bleeding between periods (menses).

Symptoms of chlamydia infection in men

As with women, many men who are infected may pass without symptoms. Estimates of how many men have chlamydia, have no symptoms, ranging from 25% to 50% what is large percentage. If symptoms do exist, they are:

  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Secretions from the penis (discharge).
  • Inflamed or swollen testicles, pain in the testicles.
  • Sometimes unpleasant itching around the head of the penis.

Chlamydia in Pregnancy

Chlamydia in pregnancy increases the chances of infection of the membranes (amnion) and amniotic fluid, which can cause premature rupture of membranes and preterm delivery, but timely treatment can reduce the risk of these problems. Some studies have linked Chlamydia with abortion, although other studies found no such connection.

Also, chlamydia infection that left untreated, increases the risk that organism, if it comes into contact with the HIV virus to be infected by it, and the same goes for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as. gonorrhea and syphilis, if you have been exposed to them. It also increases the risk of uterine infection after childbirth.

It is important to note, if you have an infection during childbirth, there is a chance to transmit chlamydia to her baby. In fact, almost 50% of babies come into the world by vaginal birth (and even some babies born by caesarean section) will get chlamydia. A number of babies who got chlamydia (between 25 and 50 percent) will develop conjunctivitis (eye infection), and between 5 and 20 percent of babies will get pneumonia a few weeks or several months after birth.

Although these infections can be serious, babies who are treated promptly with antibiotics usually go well. Of course, it is better to heal you during pregnancy and to prevent infecting your baby at all.

Treatment of Chlamydia

Treatment of chlamydia is quite simple, because it is a sexually transmitted diseases that can be treated by using antibiotics as sumamed (zithromax) or doxycycline. When receiving treatment, affected individuals must temporarily stop sexual relations, since it is still contagious and can infect your partner or partners, which then again can infect her.



Mycoplasma is a very common sexually transmitted disease or urinary tract infections caused by microorganisms that have the characteristics of bacteria inhabit the urethra and reproductive system.

Mycoplasma is actually a group of bacteria that includes more than 70 different species. Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma ureticulum, are just some of whose presence has been found in human body, and that was certainly found to cause disease and infection in humans.

Mycoplasma hominis

Mycoplasma hominis is a mycoplasma species that is most common (compared to other mycoplasma) involved in sexual infections in women. It can also cause infections of infants and infection outside the genital area, especially in people with reduced immunity.

Mycoplasma hominis, like ureaplasma is commonly found in the vagina and can cause infections of the male and female genital tract.

Mycoplasma genitalium

Mycoplasma genitalium could be sexually transmitted bacteria, which, in addition to chlamydia, a major cause of nonspecific urethritis (urethritis, which was not caused by gonorrhea) in men. In women, it is often found in association with bacterial vaginosis, mycoplasma infections, are also associated with cervicitis. Most mycoplasma genitalium infections are asymptomatic (without symptoms) and the doctors have not decided whether it makes sense that all should be tested for infection.

Symptoms of Mycoplasma infection

The presence of mycoplasma usually has no symptoms. But over time, due to the increase in their number and / or a weakened immune system, it can cause certain infections. 

Mycoplasma genitalium, although it is relatively well known microorganism, was only recently more familiar, since it is more often associated with other diagnoses, not tested alone. Scientists, however, are beginning to pay more attention to him, that it deserves as a microbe that causes the sexually transmitted disease and its symptoms are similar to other bacterial sexually transmitted disease.

Symptoms of Mycoplasma infection in women

  • Most cases have no symptoms
  • Vaginal itching (itching in the vagina)
  • Burning sensation when urinating
  • Pain during the relationship
  • Mycoplasma infections are also associated with bacterial vaginosis

Symptoms of Mycoplasma infection in men

  • most cases have no symptoms
  • secretions from the urethra (penis)
  • burning sensation when urinating
  • pain and joint swelling (arthritis)
  • Mycoplasma is a common cause of non-chlamydial and nongonococcal urethritis in men.

Treatment of Mycoplasma

Mycoplasma genitalium is usually treated as a non-specific urethritis or bacterial vaginosis, since the direct diagnosis of infection with the bacteria is very difficult to make. In both cases, the infection is treated with antibiotics, and the partner must be treated simultaneously.

When it comes to mycoplasma hominis, certain antibiotics such as tetracycline and erythromycin are commonly used to treat infections.

Possible consequences of mycoplasmas if left untreated

Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in women. It is also associated with endometritis (infection of inflammation of the mucous membrane of the uterus) and preterm birth. Since the long-term consequences of mycoplasma infection look similar to the consequences of gonorrhea and chlamydia. This is not surprising, given that their early symptoms are also very similar.


Although studies are not definitive, it is likely that in this case the constant use of condoms significantly reduces the risk of mycoplasma infection. Only, in this connection studies performed to date has found that consistent condom use has halved the risk of infection, compared to people who never used condoms.

Even though in the end turns out that condoms are not completely effective in preventing mycoplasma, their use is further a great idea, because they provide effective protection against a spread of other sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and chlamydia.



Genital ureaplasma (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) is a type of microorganism belonging to the family of mycoplasma, which causes certain genital infections, and infertility in men and women. 

What are these infections? Mycoplasma and ureaplasma, and thus, belong to the smallest bacteria that can survive without a host, and that unlike other bacteria have no cell wall, instead, those living in other living cells. Ureaplasma also belongs to the family of mycoplasmas. About 70% of sexually active adults is hosting some of these bacteria. However, when there is a significant breeding, can cause problems such as pelvic inflammatory disease, urethritis and spontaneous abortion.

Since mycoplasma and ureaplasma are naturally found in the human organism, patients are not routinely tested for these bacteria. Women who experience infertility, repeated pregnancy loss, pelvic pain, premenstrual symptoms or vaginal symptoms of infection should be tested. Often it is the culture test, similar to the Pap test, taking a swab from the vagina.

How ureaplasma is transmitted?

Ureaplasma is primarily transmitted through sexual contact. Sexual partners may unknowingly transmit the infection again and again to each other. The infection usually occurs in younger women, those with multiple sexual partners and who use oral contraceptives rather than condoms.

Symptoms of ureaplasma infection

Basically there is no presence of ureaplasma symptoms, but these bacteria can become agents of infection in case of weakening immune system (as in the case of a healthy immune system often does not cause disease).

Since ureaplasma infections usually go away without symptoms over time can cause problems with infertility, including duct disease of the uterus (uterine tube) and repeated spontaneous abortions in women and decreased sperm number and motility in men. At sterile males, it was found that the bacteria clings to the sperm and is blocking fertilization.

What diseases it causes?

Ureaplasma can be found in the respiratory and genital tract of healthy and sexually inactive, which complicates the interpretation of their significance.

They are the most common cause of non-chlamydial and nongonococcal urethritis in men; characterized by mucus from the urethra (penis in men, vagina in women), pain during urination (burning sensation during urination, and tingling), and the swelling at the mouth of the urethra (tip of the penis in men and above the vagina in women) ; some believe is associated with inflammation of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) and Reiter disease.

It can be associated with pneumonia in patients with weakened immune systems.

Ureaplasma in pregnancy

Ureaplasma (and mycoplasma hominis) found in the placenta and / or endometrium (lining of the inside lining of the uterus) is associated with infection, the birth of a dead fetus, spontaneous abortion, premature delivery and lower than normal weight of infant. Both organisms penetrate into amnion in the second trimester. It may cause chorioamnionitis (inflammation of membranes around the fetus: chorion and amnion). Was found in the blood of mothers who have had problems with high fever after childbirth.

This infection can be transmitted to about 40% of babies who were born to a mother with this infection. If the mother has it, ureaplasma can infect the lungs of the newborn during childbirth. It is caused by (and mycoplasma hominis) respiratory problems in infants with lower body weight and meningitis.

Treatment of ureaplasma infections

Since these bacteria have no cell wall - a majority of antibiotics (eg penicillins and cephalosporins) acts on bacteria by destroying their cell walls - the treatment of infections can be difficult. Only specific antibiotics such as erythromycin, tetracycline or flourokinolon may be prescribed. If you are pregnant, for you there will be also prescribed an appropriate antibiotic.

If you have problems with infertility or multiple miscarriages, request that you do culture. Get tested and treated to prevent recurrence of infection.

Laboratory diagnosis is done by taking a culture. Ureaplasma produce urease, which breaks down ie. metabolized urea (an ingredient of the urine in mammals). In this way, ureaplasma can be extracted.

Condom is a form of protection!


Genital warts - condyloma

What are condyloma or genital warts?

Genital warts (genital warts, genital warts) is a disease caused by HPV virus, that is. Human Papilloma Virus.

How are warts spread?

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is most often transmitted through sexual intercourse, however, genital warts are transmitted by direct contact with infected skin or mucous membranes and vertical transmission from mother to child.

The most common symptoms?

Symptoms of genital warts are usually small pink spots or blisters or grown a blister (tapered condylomas), which look like small warts. May appear as red, pink and white patches on the skin in the genital area and the area known as flat warts, which are flat and exhibit skin color change to the tissues. Symptoms of HPV infection may be absent for a long time, sometimes years, but in most cases you will see in the next three months after sexual contact with an infected person.

Men are often just carriers, but when symptoms occur, they are like warts on the penis or a rash on the penis, red, pink spots and dots around the base (root) of the penis, the foreskin, the glans and surrounding area, or inside the anus ( anus).

In women the symptoms are the same as in men, but appear much more frequently. Genital warts in women can be found in the form of spots and blisters externally, in the area of the vagina, as well as inside the vagina, inside the labia (lips of small and large).

What interventions are used to remove warts?

Removal of genital warts is quite successful, but there is no medicine that will forever remove the HPV virus from the body. Treatment of genital warts, ie. removal of genital warts is quite simple and there are a few ways:

  • freezing (cryotherapy)
  • burning warts (electrocoagulation)
  • Liquid preparations based podophyllin
  • injection of interferon into genital warts, which creates immunity to virus
  • laser removal of genital warts
  • by surgery

As the most effective surgical treatment recently proved radio surgery, which uses radio waves of high power output. Radio surgery is atraumatic method of cutting and coagulation of soft tissue where cutting is achieved only by heat that tissue develops in default of radio waves. Thus developed heat destroys the cells and evaporates on the way of radio waves, resulting in separation of the tissue that is cut off by scalpel. Thus the rapid and atraumatic elimination of warts is achieved, which effectively "disappear" in a moment. After the laser treatment of warts removed in its entirety without the subsequent creation of scar tissue without swelling, no bleeding and no postoperative pain.

All other therapeutic procedures require weeks of treatment and recovery with a high probability that the warts recur in the same place, while the radio laser therapeutic procedure only takes a few minutes and possibility of recurrence changes is removed in its entirety without any trauma and subsequent scarring of the skin.


Ultrasound diagnostic

Ultrasound examinations are performed on the 4D ultrasound TOSHIBA XARIO, that is used in perinatology and pregnancy monitoring.


Treatment for urinary incontinence

Gynecologic office “Terazije” offers a minimally invasive procedure using a mini sling for treatment of urinary stress incontinence.


Gynecological intervention

Gynecological interventions and surgery are abortion, exploratory curettage, biopsy, removing warts, conization, cerclage, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy...


Treatment of infertility

About 15% of couples in Serbia is considered to be infertile. In this sense, without the help of medical procedures pregnancy may be difficult to achieve.


Prenatal diagnosis

As samples for prenatal diagnosis, in order to investigate the genetic basis of fruit, is now commonly taken chorionic villi, amniotic fluid and fetal blood.


CTG of pregnant woman

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a diagnostic method of fetal monitoring, ie. its vulnerability during pregnancy and childbirth using special devices.


Video colposcopy

Colposcopy and cytology (Pap test NICOLAU) are the primary screening together in almost 99% of premalignant lesions and detect early cervical cancer.


Birth control procedures

Inserting and removing the spiral is a form of contraception. Inserting and removing the spiral is performed before or immediately after the menstrual bleeding..



Cause of Chlamydia infection is Chlamydia trachomatis. It is believed that 1 of 10 sexually active people are infected with this disease.

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